CHEMICAL COMPOSITION SPECTRUM OF URINARY TRACT STONES BY ATTENUATED TOTAL REFLECTION-FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of urinary tract stones of different chemical composition using ATR-FTIR received for analysis
Study design: Cross sectional study with retrospective sampling
Place & Duration of Study: from January 2010 to January 2018
Materials and Methods: Data was collected from 2092 patients whose stones were sent for biochemical analysis to the laboratory after removal or by spontaneous expulsion in a sterile container. Stones that were sent in fluid filled containers, with collection devices, embedded in tissues were excluded. Patient’s identity was kept confidential by assigning a new code to each stone. Stones were cleaned and washed with distilled water to remove debris like mucous, blood, rubbish and casts. Stones were then converted to a homogenous powder by pestle and mortar. Stones were then analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy on IRAffinity-1. Mean and standard deviation was calculated for all the parametric quantitative variables while frequency with percentages was used for qualitative variables.
Results: Majority of the patients 1495(71.4%) had calcium oxalate stones followed by mixed heterogeneous type 423(20.2%). The age group which showed the highest prevalence of nephrolithiasis was 30-39 years (25.7%) followed by 20-29 years (21.6%) and then 40-49 years (17.8%). The lowest cases of nephrolithiasis were found in the 90-99 years of age group (0.04%) followed by 80-89 years(0.5%). Male predominance was found in all age groups.
Conclusion: This study concluded that the most common chemical composition of stones is calcium oxalate followed by mixed heterogeneous type. Urinary tract stones are more prevalent in adult males.