Hyperlipidemias subtypes association with different glycemic levels
Objective: To compare lipid profile and glycemic profile in diabetic, pre-diabetic and biochemical healthy individuals.
Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study at Department of Chemical Pathology & Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from July 2018 to March 2019. Samples of fasting lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c were collected by simple random technique. At 3000 RPM for 5 minutes, these samples were then centrifuged. Using the enzymatic colorimetric methods fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) were analyzed on ADVIA1800 and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) analysis was facilitated by turbidometry inhibition immunoassay (TINIA) using ADVIA1800. For the statistical analysis SPSS 22 was used.
Results: Out of 141 selected subjects 72 (51.1%) were males and 69 (48.9%) were females. On the basis of fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c values, outcome variable was divided into following three categories; healthy group 18 (12.8%), pre-diabetic 40 (28.4%) and diabetic 83 (58.9%). Mean age in healthy, prediabetic and diabetic groups were 45.9±18.3 years, 52.3±11.1 years, 55.4±10.2 years respectively. The results deducted from the lipid profile analysis suggest; out of these 141 patients 21 (14.9%) were healthy, 15(10.6%) with familial combined hyperlipidemias (FCH), 12(8.5%) had familial cholesterolemia (FH), 2(1.4%) were with hypertriglyceridemia, and 91(64.6%) were of nonspecific dyslipidemias. Different hyperlipidemia (according to Frederickson ‘s classification) and nonspecific dyslipidemia percentage distribution in three glycemic profile categories was; diabetic group included normal lipid profile = 9 (10.8%), FH = 8 (9.6%), FCH = 7 (8.4%), hypertriglyceridemia = 2 (2.4%) and nonspecific dyslipidemia = 57 (68.7%), pre-diabetic group included normal lipid profile =7 (17.5%), FH = 7 (17.5%), FCH = 5 (12.5%) and nonspecific dyslipidemia = 21 (52.5%) and healthy group included lipid profile within reference range= 5 (27.8%) and nonspecific dyslipidemias = 13(72.2%). The non- specific dyslipidemias groups had been further divided into different groups; 1st group included only decrease HDL-C= 21(23%), 2nd group included increase VLDL-C and decrease HDL-C = 15 (17%), 3rd group included decrease HDL-C increase LDL-C and increase total cholesterol (TC) of 38 (42%) and 4th group included decrease HDL-C, increase Triglyceride (TG), increase VLDL-C with decrease HDL-C 16(18%).
Conclusion: Nonspecific dyslipidemia was found with highest frequency in healthy than pre-diabetic and diabetic population.
Key Words: Nonspecific dyslipidemias, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C.